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Seasonal Affective Disorder [SAD]

1. Lighting --

Here are commercial enterprises with information and sales of full-spectrum lighting to help with Seasonal Affective Disorder.

SUN-A-LUX - Manufacturer of 10,000 Lux and Full Spectrum Lighting and Light Bulbs by American Environmental Products.

Light for Health - Full spectrum light is the cure for seasonal affective disorder

You can also consider purchasing the fixture at a home improvement center, and full spectrum light bulbs from somewhere selling tropical fish. This has worked for some people I know.

2. The Phenol Connection --

I am including research here on the connection between SAD and phenol issues. Click here for more information on phenols. So far, I have not found information on whether things like epsom salt baths would be effective for the SAD manifestation of phenol intolerance issues, or if that would only work for the food manifestation, but if you try any of these things for yourself or your child, and you see effects either positive or negative, then please do let me know so I can update my information here to help other individuals with this issue.

3. PST Research --

These are abstracts dealing with PST activity and seasonal/gender-induced variations. The first two are the main thrust for the argument, the others are indirectly related.


Neuropsychobiology 1998;38(1):1-5 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut

Gender-related seasonality of human platelet phenolsulfotransferase activity.

Marazziti D, Palego L, Rossi A, Cassano GB.

Dipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, Universita di Pisa, Italia.

This study focused on the investigation of the possible effect of gender and season on the activity of the thermolabile and thermostable forms of platelet phenolsulfotransferase (PST) in a group of 23 healthy, drug-free volunteers of both sexes. The results showed a different seasonal profile of PST activity in men and women: in men, PST seasonal rhythms revealed a shallow profile with higher values in both the spring and summer than in the autumn. Conversely, in women, the PST seasonality showed a profile consisting overall of a main peak in the summer. Also, significant gender-dependent correlations were found between the photoperiod length and PST values. Our findings should stimulate further investigation into gender-dependent molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic agents, such as monoamines and phenols, which are the substrates of PST.


Chronobiol Int 1995 Apr;12(2):100-5 Related Articles, Books

Human platelet sulfotransferase shows seasonal rhythms.

Marazziti D, Palego L, Mazzanti C, Silvestri S, Cassano GB.

Institute of Psychiatry, University of Pisa, Italy.

Our study aimed to investigate the possible presence of seasonal changes in platelet phenolsulfotransferase (ST) in a group of 20 healthy, drug-free subjects of both sexes between 24 and 37 years of age. Blood samples were taken four times a year in the period immediately following the equinoxes and the solstices. The results showed that both Sts underwent seasonal changes: the lowest values were found in autumn and in winter, and the highest in the summer. A positive correlation between the two STs and the length of the photoperiod was observed in winter whereas in the spring we detected a negative correlation between the TL ST and the photoperiod length. Future studies should clarify whether platelet ST of patients with mood disorders shows a similar seasonality.


Med Hypotheses 1983 Mar;10(3):231-46 Related Articles, Books

Exploration of the role of phenolsulfotransferase in the disposition of serotonin in human platelets: implications for a novel therapeutic strategy against depression.

Costa JL, Launay JM, Kirk KL.

Human platelets have been used as models to evaluate a possible role for phenolsulfotransferase (PST) in the disposition of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT). The platelet M-type PST, which prefers biogenic amines as substrates, appears to be unique in its ability to O-sulfate dopamine and 4,6-difluoro-5HT (diF-5HT) at rates 6-20 times faster than 5HT. The assay technique employed can make a critical difference in the measured rates of sulfation of these amines, however. For example, use of purified alveolysin toxin to disrupt cell membranes can result in as much as a 20-fold increase in the observed velocity of 5HT O-sulfation. In intact platelets, only 1-3% of the total amount of radiolabelled material (as measured by a thin-layer chromatographic procedure) is the O-sulfate conjugate of 5HT. Up to 20% of the total H3-5HT taken up by cells becomes O-sulfated following treatments such as reserpine which lead to a large increase in the extra-vesicular (cytoplasmic) pool of H3-5HT. Availability of a com pound producing irreversible inhibition of M-type PST activity would facilitate exploration of intra-platelet 5HT metabolism, but compounds reported to inhibit essentially 100% of the PST activity in other systems do not appear to interfere with the action of human platelet M-type PST. Because of the apparent similarity between PST present in human platelets and in nerve microsacs prepared from guinea pig brains, PST inhibitors effective in human platelets might also be valuable for studies of amine metabolism in brain tissue. Possible candidates are discussed. Furthermore, the behavioral effects of compounds proving to be PST inhibitors could provide novel therapeutic approaches to the problem of depressive illness.


Clin Chim Acta 1981 Dec 24;117(3):333-44 Related Articles, Books

Human platelet phenolsulphotransferase: separate control of the two forms and activity range in depressive illness.

Carter SM, Glover V, Sandler M, Gillman PK, Bridges PK.

Human phenolsulphotransferase exists in two forms, one specific for dopamine and tyramine, termed "M" and one for phenol, termed "P". In this study we have shown that these two forms are under separate control by correlating their activities in different individuals using different substrates. There was a highly significant correlation between the activities with dopamine, p-tyramine and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol, but no significant correlation between the activities with any of these three substrates and that with phenol. Neither age nor sex had any effect on platelet phenolsulphotransferase "M" or "P" activities. Nor was there any significant correlation between platelet monoamine oxidase activity and phenolsulphotransferase "M" or "P" activities. Human platelet phenolsulphotransferase "M" was found to be unstable at temperatures above 35 degree C and it lost substantial activity when stored deep frozen in isotonic saline. However it was stable for up to four months when stored in isot onic sucrose or 10 mmol/l phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Phenolsulphotransferase "M" amd "P" activities were measured in platelets from depressed patients of a diagnostic type characterized by low output of tyramine-O-sulphate after oral tyramine loading but their enzyme activities were not different from those in two control groups.

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